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    What Would Happen if Earth Stopped Rotating Suddenly? – WhatWhenWhy

    What would happen if earth stopped spinning

    What would happen if earth stopped rotating suddenly? The possibility of earth standing still all of a sudden is practically zero. Before we understand what would happen if earth stops rotating all of a sudden, let’s first see what’s happening on earth right now?

    Earth’s Distance from sun: 150 million kilometers

    Earth’s Orbital Speed around the sun: 108,000 kilometers/hour

    Earth’s mass: 5.972 × 10^24 kilograms

    Age: 4.543 billion years

    Density: 5.51 g/cm³

    Gravity: 9.807 m/s

    Earth’s rotation around it’s own axis: 1673.718 kilometers/hour at the equator. (Source)

    There are two things to be considered here:

    1. An object that is in motion tends to stay in motion and an object at rest tends to stay at rest.
    2. Every thing on earth and in its atmosphere is also rotating with earth at the same speed which is 1673.718 km/h

    So as soon as the earth stops rotating suddenly, following thing would happen:

    1. Humans would suddenly fly towards east at 464.9216 m/s at the equator. The speed slows down as you move towards poles.
    2. There would be super mega tsunamis and eventually all the water would move towards poles flooding South and North pole as shown in the picture below. Bad news for Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, China, South America, New Zealand and obviously for Antarctica. This would create huge land mass around the equator.what would happen if earth stopped rotating
    3. Since the atmosphere is already moving, there would be wind storms speeding at 1670 km/h as the earth would come to a stand still.
    4. This high speed wind would cause erosion to the surface of earth.
    5. People in the planes would feel the effects a few second later when the gigantic storm would hit the plane destroying it and everything within it.
    6. The high speed winds would also cause fire on a global scale.
    7. Earth will loose its magnetic field so magma inside the earth’s core will erupt from every possible hole in earth’s surface. This would cause earthquakes.
    8. Earth will loose it electromagnetic field hence there will be no protection from the cosmic radiation from the sun.
    9. Half of the Earth would be constantly exposed to the Sun causing extremely high temperature and the other half would freeze.
    10. There would be no 24 hour day and night but 6 months long day and night.

    There are many articles detailing what would happen if earth stopped rotating suddenly, few of them are linked below: Source-1 Souce-2

     

     

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    Snorkeling in Lakes in Pakistan – Adventure Timeline and Details

    Lake-snorkeling-adventure

    Snorkeling in Lakes in Pakistan

    Snorkeling in Lakes in Pakistan may seem a very alien topic for many reader from Pakistan but snorkeling a very mature and fun adventurous sport all over the world. Pakistan has a huge number of glacial lakes in the North. Most of these lakes are frozen in winters. It’s difficult to tell which one is more mesmerizing than the other. There is however a list of my personal favorite 5 lakes in the North that you can see here:

    Top 5 most beautiful Lakes in the North of Pakistan

    What is Snorkeling?

    Snorkeling (British and Commonwealth English spelling: Snorkelling) is the practice of swimming on or through a body of water while equipped with a diving mask, a shaped breathing tube called a snorkel, and usually swimfins. In cooler waters, a wetsuit may also be worn.

    snorkeling

    Lake diving is now a mature extreme sport and is popular in the west among many adventure lovers. The lakes in Pakistan however have not be explored in this way. There are very few records of anyone attempting to dive or snorkel in these lakes. Depth, lake bed and the knowledge about the aquatic life in these lakes hence remains a mystery. Every lake has a myth attached to it which adds fun for some tourists and a chill in the spine for others.

    I have been dreaming about snorkeling across these lakes since 2014. Work and financial situation was not in favor and I didn’t have enough data to form an educated opinion about the risks involved while doing this adventure. Next year (2017), when the summer arrives, I am planning to snorkel across these lakes in September with the minimum possible expense without compromising the safety.

    Technical Details

    The biggest challenge comes from very cold water. The glacial lakes are filled with melted ice and glaciers. Water temperature is freezing cold even in the peak summers – less than 5 °C. Dipping your body in such cold water even for few minutes results in hypothermia. Hypothermia is a serious medical condition when your body temperature goes below 35 °C (37 °C is normal). This could result in vital organ failure and eventually death if left untreated.

    The solution is to keep you body warm and dry. A good quality dry suit with proper insulation is the answer.

    Dry Suit/Swimwear – Keeping the body warm and dry

    There are many dry suits available in the market ranging from $500 – $5000. Different quality, material and brand defines the price of the suit. One important thing here is to note that Dry Suit DOES NOT keep you warm, it only keep the water out. Proper inner-wear aka swimwear should be worn that keeps your body warm. The cheapest combination of Dry suit and inner-wear I found so far costs $1500 ($1000 for the suit and $500 for the inner-wear).

    Depth measurement and record keeping

    Second challenge is to measure and record the depth. Measurement is easy. The challenge is to keep an electronic time and location based record of the data. There are industrial solutions that keep historical record of depth and sense the depth at user specified time intervals but such sensors are expensive.

    The cheapest solution I found is to buy a water proof fish finder and the SONAR (less than $100). Hook a water proof camera in front of the screen display and it should do the job. Fish finders measure the water depth, temperature and presence of any fish. The screen also reports the lake bed features.

    fish-finder-screen

    Recording the video

    Third major challenge is recording the video. I am planning to take 3 underwater cameras with me. One camera will be hooked up with the fish finder. Second one with my face mask recording whatever I’m seeing and 3rd camera in my hand that I can point anywhere if I wish to record something interesting. GoPro is one solution which is expensive because I need three cameras. There are alternate cheap solution that cost less than half of what the GoPro would cost without any significant compromise on the video quality.

    Other Equipment

    Waterproof gloves, hoodie, warm socks, water proof boots, fins and face mask with snorkel is required.

    Total Cost

    Total cost of this adventure is projected to be between $1700 – $2000. I’m trying to minimize it as much as I can.

    Time

    The ideal time seems to be the month of September, 2017 when the temperature is maximum. Any suggestion regarding a better time? feel free to comment below.

    Saif-ul-Malook Lake

    This lake is going to be the first in the serious of lakes I would like to snorkel across this summer. It has many myths surrounding its depth. I am planning to start from the south bank which makes it easy to swim with the flow minimizing my physical effort. Approximate swim distance is around 850 meters.

    Saif-ul-Malook late

    Dudipat Lake

    Dudipat lake is second on the list. I am expecting very clear water with high visibility in this lake. I will be camping there for a night and hope for a sunny warm day when I attempt to swim some 650 meter across the lake. The plan is to walk to the east bank and swim with the flow but I have never been to this lake before so I am not sure if the North-east bank is flat enough to allow crossing by foot. This is something I have to decide once I’m on the site.

    Dudipat-Lake

    Lulusar Lake

    Lulusar lake, though not very appealing yet is on the way to Gilgat so I am planning to cross this lake as well in the same trip. I expect low visibility and surprising depth.

    Lulu-sar-Lake

    Sheosar Lake

    This lake is at an altitude of 4000+ meters. Clear water with high visibility is expected. I personally believe, based on my experience, that this is going to be one of the deepest lake due to the flat surroundings. It is also going to be the most challenging lake to swim across. Swim distance is around 1.25 kilometers from east to west bank.

    Sheosar-Lake

    Ratti Gali Lake

    One of my favorite lake. Clear water and surrounded by steep hills. Good visibility is expected. This lake has a unique challenge that there is no way to walk across the east bank. The only approach is from the west and I have to swim from west to east around 660 meters and then back to west another 660 meters. This lake has many myths and locals always stop you from camping near the lake.

    Rattigali-lake

    I request all readers to please leave a comment and suggest any possible way to make this adventure more fun and safe.

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    Top 5 Most Beautiful Lakes in Pakistan That You Must Visit

    Lakes

    Pakistan is located on the face of earth at 30.3753° N, 69.3451° E. The country is blessed with natural beauty and tons of attraction for foreign and local tourists. It offers some of the tallest mountains in the world, deserts, lakes, many ancient cultural and heritage sites. Pakistan has a 1,046 km long coastline that hosts many unexplored beaches.

    Though the country has a bad reputation in the international community due to its security situation but the ground reality is very different. Pakistani people are one of the most humble and hospitable hosts in the world. The country has one of the toughest visa policy. International tourists often face difficulty in arranging required paper work to secure a tourist visa. This link details the visa requirements based on nationality.

    There are number of lakes in Pakistan but this articles covers some of the best lakes that a tourist must visit in Northern Pakistan.

    5. Sail-ul-Maluk Lake (lake saiful maluk)

    Saiful Maluk Lake

    Location: Mansehra District, Kaghan Valley, Near the Town of Naran, KPK, Northern Pakistan

    Coordinates: Google Mapslink

    Altitude: 10,577 feet – 3224 meters

    Accessibility: The road to the lake is not fully paved (Total distance is approximately 9 kilometers from Naran). Jeeps can be hired from the town of Naran. Some tourists hike instead of renting a jeep.

    Depth: No official survey has been conducted but a dive team reported the maximum depth not exceeding 60 feet. Don’t believe any story the local folks tell you about the lake depth.

    Best time to visit: July till September

    4. Sheosar Lake

    Sheosar Lake - lakes in pakistan

    Location: Deosai National Park, Gilgat Baltistan,Northern Pakistan

    Coordinates: Google Maps link

    Altitude: 13,589 feet – 4142 meters

    AccessibilityThere are two routes to the lake. The road form the Astore side is almost paved till the lake. One can reach the lake on any car including 0.8 Liter Suzuki Mehran. The other route is from Skadu city. The road is not friendly for Sedans. SUVs with 4WD are recommended.

    Depth: Average 40 meters (130 feet)

    Best time to visit: July till September

    3. Lulusar Lake

    Lulusar-Lake - lakes in pakistan

    Location: 48 kilometers from Naran towards Babusar. KPK province, Northern Pakistan

    Coordinates: Google Maps link

    Altitude: 11,188 feet – 3410 meters

    AccessibilityPaved road, accessible by any car. 288 kilometers from Islamabad via Muzaffarabad. Travel time: Approximately 8 hours.

    Depth: Unknown

    Best time to visit: July till September

    2. Dudipat Lake

    Dudipatsar Lake

    Location: East of Besal, KPK province, Northern Pakistan

    Coordinates: Google Maps link

    Altitude: 12,467 feet – 3800 meters

    AccessibilityPaved road till Besal. You need to park your car there. The lake is approximately 15 kilometers from Besal and the only way to reach there is by hiking. Depending on your fitness level, this can be done is less than 10 hours. Other options include renting a horse.

    Depth: Unknown

    Best time to visit: July till September

    1. Rattigali Lake

    RattiGali Lake - lakes in pakistan

    Location: Near Dowarian, Distract Neelam, Pakistani Occupied Kashmir, Pakistan

    Coordinates: Google Maps link

    Altitude: 12,130 feet – 3698 meters

    AccessibilityPaved road till Dowarian. 2.5 hours jeep trek. 1 hour hike to the lake from the base camp.

    Depth: Unknown

    Best time to visit: July till September

     

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    Top 10 US Cities With Most Homeless People – WhatWhenWhy?

    US Cities With Most Homeless People

    Get ready to be surprised to know many developed US cities with most homeless people. Homelessness is a very serious social issue in the United States. Around half a million people are homeless today in USA and won’t have a roof on top of their head when they sleep at night.

    Homelessness is a problem in town of all sizes but bigger cities have a higher number of homeless people. A survey in conducted every year in January by US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The count includes people sleeping in streets, under the bridges, in their cars and temporary shelters. It doesn’t include people who are sleeping over at their friends’ or at relatives’. It also doesn’t include people sleeping in motels and hotels. So this figure is an approximation. Let’s find out which US cities with most homeless people.

    Total number of homeless people in USA as of January 2016 were 550,000.

    Top cities with homeless people:

    10 – Philadelphia

    Philadelphia homeless

    Total Population: 1.553 million (2013)

    Homeless people: 6,112

    Estimated median household income: $36,836

    9 – Las Vegas

    Las Vegas homeless

    Total Population: 603,488 (2013)

    Homeless people: 6,208

    Estimated median household income: $49,289

    8 – Boston

    Boston homeless

    Total Population: 645,966 (2013)

    Homeless people: 6,240

    Estimated median household income: $53,583

    7 – San Jose

    San Jose homeless

    Total Population: 998,537 (2013)

    Homeless people: 6,524

    Estimated median household income: $80,977

    6 – San Francisco

    San Francisco homeless

    Total Population: 837,442 (2013)

    Homeless people: 6,996

    Estimated median household income: $77,485

    5 – District of Colombia

    District of Colombia

    Total Population: 658,893 (2014)

    Homeless people: 8,350

    Estimated median household income: $67,572

    4 – San Diego City

    San Diego City homeless

    Total Population: 1.356 million (2013)

    Homeless people: 8,669

    Estimated median household income: $63,456

    3 – Seattle

    Seattle homeless

    Total Population: 652,405 (2013)

    Homeless people: 10,730

    Estimated median household income: $70,172

    2 – Los Angeles City

    Los Angeles City homeless

    Total Population: 3.884 million (2013)

    Homeless people: 43,853

    Estimated median household income: $48,466

    1 – New York City

    New York City homeless

    Total Population: 8.406 million (2013)

    Homeless people: 73,523

    Estimated median household income: $52,223

    San Francisco is going through a serious homelessness crisis and it was one of the top searched keyword recently in google search. On December 7, 2016, over 70 news organizations — including the Google News Lab — in San Francisco and the Bay Area coordinated to report the issue of homelessness.

    Sources: Forbes, Citydata

     

     

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    What Makes Us Happy? – Top 7 Tips You Should Try – WhatWhenWhy

    What makes us happy

    What is happiness and what makes us happy? How to find happiness in life? How to find happiness within yourself? These are the questions that you are going to ask yourself at some stage in your life. Being happy is a feeling. It can only be felt if you have something to compare it with, like being sad or upset. Deep down, all humans are born with same nature so there are few common things that make us all happy irrespective of our cultural, social and religious differences.

    1. Make someone happy – Help others

    Whenever you have this question in your  mind “What makes us happy”, help someone without expecting anything back; you would probably have the answer. Share happiness to be happy. Make someone else smile everyday and you will see how much difference it has on your own happiness. Help someone even if you are unhappy. It is going to feel amazing. Share your meal with a homeless person, talk to a stranger everyday and listen to the story of their life.

    Make someone else happy

    2. Spend some time alone

    Human are today connected with each other like never before. Email, messages, phone calls, social media – we spend a lot of time connecting with other people everyday and forget to connect with ourselves. Spend some time alone. It allows you to reassess where you want to be in life and where you are headed.

    Spend alone time

    3. Do what you love

    One of the best way to be happy is always do what you love. Walk alone, paint, watch a movie, dace, sing, hang out with friends, do whatever makes you happy.

    Doing things you love

    4. Get a good sleep

    Good sleep and happiness has a very deep relationship. It has been proved through research that people getting enough sleep per day are happier and healthier than those who don’t sleep enough. An adult needs 8 hours of sleep every night. It reflects in greater performance and improved immune system.

    Sleeping well

    5. Food

    Everyone love eating good food. Full tummy makes everyone happy and all the work we do everyday is to feed our tummy and have a shelter above our head. So eat healthy to stay healthy and happy.

    Eat healthy

    6. Exercise

    Keep your body fit to be happy. A healthy body and mind can generate positive thoughts. Hit the gym or just walk a few miles everyday. Physical activity has a deep connection with your mood and you will feel the difference in your sleep pattern, learning ability and memory.

    Jogging and happiness

    7. Travel – Solo or with friends

    Plan a holiday, either alone or with your friends. Go to places you have never been before and enjoy  as much as you can. If you can’t go for a vacation, at least plan one. There is a research proving that planning a holiday makes you feel more happy than actually being on a holiday, so do it as frequently as you can.

    Vacation

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    Why Do Some People Have a Tiny Hole Outside Ear? – WhatWhenWhy

    Have you ever seen a person with a tiny hole outside ear where face and cartilage meet? This hole can be located anywhere adjust to the external ear. It’s known by the name Preauricular pit, congenital preauricular fistula or ear pit.

    This is not something serious and a total of 0.3% to 0.5% population is born with this condition. This malformation occurs due to faulty fusion during the development phase of the ear. It happens when the child is in the womb so it’s a congenital condition present from the birth.

    This condition alone is harmless but can cause infection. it is also linked with permanent hearing impairment among kids. The prevalence of  hearing impairment among kids with ear pits is higher than kids without ear pits. The ratio is 8 in 1000 to 1.5 in 1000. Other abnormalities include narrow ear canal, small size and asymmetry.

    The ear pit is lined with skin cells and is prone to infection and getting blocked. An infected ear pit has symptoms of redness, itching, pain, swelling and leaking puss.

    An evolutionary biologists has suggests that these ear pits could be evolutionary remnants of fish gills. This is currently a theory and has not been scientifically prove.

    Let us know if any of you are born with ear pits?

    References: Business Insider

    tiny hole outside ear

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    Infographics: 26 Interesting Facts About Earth That Will Blow Your Mind

    Interesting Facts About Earth

    There are a lot of interesting facts about earth but before we talk about, let’s try to realize what is universe and what is our location in this vast universe. Below are some unknown facts universe:

    Universe and its size

    1 – Universe is 13.7 billion light years old.

    2 – The universe is expanding evenly in all direction, not just the matter in it but the space itself.

    3 – The astronomers think that there are around 200 billion (200,000,000,000) galaxies in the universe.

    4 – Kornreich estimates that there are maybe some 2 trillion (2,000,000,000,000) galaxies in the universe.

    5 – 95% of universe is made up of stuff that we can’t see. (70% Dark Energy & 25% Dark Matter)

    Observable universe

    Our Galaxy – The Milky Way

    MilkyWay

    6 – Milky way is 13.21 billion years old.

    7 – It is home to estimated 200 billion stars.

    8 – Let’s say there are 2 trillion galaxies in the universe with an average of 100 billion stars in each galaxy, we will end up with 100 octillions (100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) stars. 1 followed by 29 zeros.

    Clusters of galaxies connected to each other
    Clusters of galaxies connected to each other

    Our Solar System

    9 – Our Sun is also star and 8 planets revolve around the Sun.

    10 – It’s orbiting around the center of the Milky way at 250 kilometers per second (250 km/s).

    11 – The solar system takes around 225 to 250 million years to complete one circle around the center of galaxy.

    Planet Earth

    Eclipse on earth
    Eclipse on earth

    12 – Earth is revolving around the sun at 30 kilometers per second (30 km/s).

    13 – Earth is spinning at 1673.718 km/h around its axis at equator. (464.9216 m/s)

    14 – It has lots of liquid water, (approximately 1,338,000,000,000,000,000,000 liters – 1338 followed by 18 zeros – fresh and saline)

    15 – 3.5 trillion fish live on Earth.

    16 – Total weight of ants living on earth is same as weight of all humans on earth. 100 trillion ants live on this planet.

    17 – 7.5 billion Human beings live on earth.

    18 – Earth is home to 8,700,000 species.

    19 – Did you know that there are 18.6 domestic Chicken living on Earth?

    20 – There is a possibility of three asteroids could hitting earth in next 200 years wiping out all life.

    21 – Earth’s rotation is gradually slowing down.

    22 – Between 2-4 species of animals and plants go extinct every hour because of humans.

    23 – Earth was one believed to be the center of the Universe.

    24 – Humans have explored only 5% of the Oceans till date.

    25 – 80% of the species living on earth are still undiscovered.

    26 – Earth is struck 8.6 million times by lighting every single day.

    Click here to see Interactive 3D Solar system.

    Interesting Facts About Earth – InfoGraphics

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    What is Quantum Mechanics and Why is it so weird!

    Background of Quantum Mechanics

    Almost all of us know Isaac Newton. An apple fell on his head while he was sitting under a tree. The debate is still going on about the fate of that apple. Some say he ate it while others say he didn’t. Some even don’t believe the apple story. To cut it short, he apparently came up with the idea of existence of gravity. The mathematics did prove him right. This started a new era in the field of classical mechanics that defines the behavior of everyday objects.

    A century and a half later some guy called Albert Einstein was born in Germany. He came up with the theory of special and general relativity. Einstein described the physics of very large scale and fast moving objects in universe. He also explained how exactly the gravity works because Newton didn’t explain it.

    The beginning of Quantum era!

    Max Plank, AKA the daddy of Quantum Physics, described the physics of the very small and tiny, like at nano-scale. It attempts to explain the behavior of subatomic particles (atom, electrons, photos, Quarks, Gluons, etc.).

    Let’s try to familiarize ourselves with few basic concepts of Quantum mechanics.

    The dual nature of subatomic particles

    As Albert Einstein wrote: “It seems as though we must use sometimes the one theory and sometimes the other, while at times we may use either. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty. We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do”.

    How a tennis ball behaves?

    When we picture atoms, electrons, photons and other sub atomic particles like tiny balls and try to imagine their behavior like a tennis ball, that’s when things get confusing, complicated, nasty and weird. Let’s say you are in a room that has two windows and you are asked to throw the tennis ball out the room through one of those windows. Simple enough, you would choose one window, aim, throw, and the ball is out of the room and you know exactly which window it left form.

    How an electron behaves?

    Now let’s say you replace the windows with two much smaller windows and the tennis ball with an electron and you are asked to throw the electron out of one of the window. You aim and throw – it could pass through both the windows simultaneously. It could pass through one of the windows as if it acts like a wave that distributes across the room and passes through both windows or it could act like a particle, like a tennis balls, and passes through just one window. This behavior, either acting like a wave or like a particle, is based on how we observe the electron. If we have a detector (like a blank paper sheet and every time an electron hits the sheet it leaves a mark) at the other end of the wall and observe the behavior of electron from that end, it would act like a wave spreading across the paper sheet leaving a wave like pattern, hence passing through both windows at the same time (Remember we are throwing one electron at a time).

    The Crazy Weird part!

    But let’s say now we place a detector on top of both windows and detect the electron, it would pass though only one windows and leave a mark on paper sheet just behind one of the hole every time. Apparently it seems that electrons know that where the detector is placed and change their behavior based on its position. This is very bizarre and scientists still don’t understand how exactly it works. The above mentioned behavior of particles is proven by an experiment called “Double slit experiment”.

    double-slit-experiment- Quantum Mechanics

    Follow this link to perform Double-slit experiment at home.

    Quantum entanglement

    Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon when two particles or a group of particles behave in a way that their quantum state and properties can’t be define individually. This behavior of particles has been proven through experiments. For example, let’s say two particles that are entangled are spinning. Now if the spin direction of one of the particles is measured to be upwards, its engaged particles’s spin direction would always be observed to be downwards and vice versa. It get’s more crazy and weird when the distance between these two entangled particles doesn’t matter, they can be sitting right next to separated by trillions of miles. These particles seem to be connected in a way that as soon as one particle is observed, it defines the state of the other particle.

    quantum-entanglement-physics - Quantum Mechanics

    Applications of Quantum Mechanics:

    Hack-proof data transmission

    Secure data communication is backbone of today’s modern world. Data is encrypted using a random key and transmitted over the network. The encrypted data called ciphertext can only be read if decrypted. The encryption key is shared with the intended receiver over the same network. Quantum cryptography is not a new technique in cryptography rather is defines a new way to transmit the keys. If anyone unauthorized tries to read the key, the communicators will get an alert about the security breach. This revolutionary technology is called QKD (Quantum Key Distribution). It gives two communicating parties the ability to detect the presence of any party trying to steal the key. The key concepts used in designing such secure transmission are Quantum Superposition and Quantum entanglement.

    Electron Microscopy

    The conventional microscopes use light to see the objects at a nano-scale where the limit is around 200 nano-meters. A quantum microscope can give you the ability to see objects at an amazing 20 Picometers. As a result, one can observe things at a much finer scale. This can be used to observe the behavior of viruses and other ting organisms which is not possible with a conventional microscope.

    Other applications include MRI scanning, lasers, Quantum computing, particle teleportation and a lot more.

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